ELF - Electromagnetic Fields Experiments
Experimental procedures and their application in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment
As in other electromagnetic fields (EMF) frequency ranges, the medical and experimental application of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are used to achieve a great variety of outcomes; cellular differentiation, brain activity modulation, experimental cancer treatment, and others. ...
As all exposures revised in this website, all the intensities applied in all the experiments mentioned below are of low intensity, 1mT or less (except for a very few exceptions), even cases where much less energy is experimentally used, and being of low frequency the cause of any of the effects has nothing to do with heating and nothing to do with ionizing. Moreover there are cases, for example in bacteria, that targets are highly viable in ionizing radiation up to 5000 Gy, but their division rate is on the contrary highly sensitive to non-ionizing radiation , with a not established mechanism that can imply calcium ion membrane flux dynamics or ion cyclotron resonances among others.
One of the most interesting outcomes for a future medical application, as regenerative therapy, is the promotion of cellular differentiation, in this ambit numerous positive results have been reached, showing that ELF-EMFs can promote osteogenesis, angiogenesis, or neurogenesis using cardiac stem cells, neural stem cells, and bone narrow mesenchymal cells among others.
In  is proposed that the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into neuronal phenotype is reached via reactive oxygen production that can cause the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation via phosphorylation and clustering, which may, in turn, lead to the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and an increase of the CREB phosphorylation. In  is found that the regulation of (Zn)‐metallothionein‐3 plays a role while in  is found that early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) is one of the key transcription factors in that ELF-EMF-induced neuronal differentiation of the bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells.
One of the possible medical application of the neuronal differentiation promotion is to recover brain after ischemic damage, where some experiments have auspicious results. In an experiment  with neural progenitor cells (NPC) data shows that ELF-EMF promotes neurogenesis of ischemic NPCs and suggest that this effect may occur through the Akt pathway. On the other hand in an experimental thesis by Gao  in a rat model with cerebral ischemia, it's showed that the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells caused after exposure probably occur by the also detected up-regulation of Hes1, Hes5 and Notch1.
Apart from recover from ischemic damage the ELF-EMF stimulation can also affects olfactory memory by modulating neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of mice brain .
Neurogenesis of hippocampal neural stem cells with upregulation of Hes1 has also found in , along with upregulation of Neurogenin 1 and NeuroD1 that are strongly associated with the pan-neuronal gene expression and the neuronal fate determination.
Also, in an experimental setup with embryonic neural stem cells  increased expression of NeuroD and Neurogenin 1 proneural genes has been found, and also that:
" ... the expression of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) was significantly up-regulated accompanied by increased the peak amplitude of intracellular calcium level."
Some genes are found recursively affected along different experiments and targets, some others are detected to be affected in a novel way, in an experiment with human embryonic kidney cells they are identified 24 genes whose expression changed after ELF-EMF exposure , and their results points toward an important role of the histone lysine methyltransferase (Mll2), that is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KMT2D gene.
More interestingly, in this last study  they found that:
" Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming."
They point out that results support a model in which the environmental magnetic field promotes chromatin reorganization through the activation of Mll2, specifically, during the dynamic epigenetic changes initiated by expression of the 4 Yamanaka reprogramming factors. Anyway, it is interesting to note here that some special properties of water, as cluster formation, requires a geomagnetic natural-like EMF exposure (in particular its natural Schumann resonance frequency at 7.8Hz) to form , or as is argued in some experimental procedures  to develop its information storing properties, see sections [10,11].
Another use for regenerative medicine is the osteogenic differentiation to regenerate bone tissues. Findings in  suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields on rat BMSCs’ proliferation differentiation and mineralization are time duration dependent and that the MEK/ERK signaling pathway plays important role. Meanwhile in  it is showed that although when the EMF exposure is combined with an osteogenic differentiation medium the stimulation is more effective, the electromagnetic field stimulation alone also motivated the expression of osteogenic genes.
BMSCs can also be differentiated in astrocytes using ELF-EMFs; in  it’s found that this differentiation has been induced through the activation of SIRT1 and SIRT1 downstream molecules.
Muscle fibers can also regenerated applying ELF-EMFs on myoblast cells .
It’s an interesting review on dependence of Stem cell fate on electromagnetic fields  where the electromagnetic (EM) nature of the cells is also discussed.
Last but not least, in an experimental procedure that uses very low intensity electromagnetic fields tuned to the Ca2+ ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) at 7 Hz  (see this text below for a section on ICR) it is show that the exposure also induced neuronal differentiation.
There is a very interesting line of investigation by Persinger and co-workers [16,17,18,19] where they are using physiologically-patterned ELF-EMF of very low intensity to treat cancer, inhibiting cancer cell grow and dissolving them, although with some difficulties that are trying to resolve as expressed in :
" Exposure to a particular pattern of weak (~3 to 5 μT) magnetic fields produced by computer-generated point durations within three-dimensions completely dissolved malignant cancer cells but not healthy cells. Biomolecular analyses and confocal microscopy indicated excessive expansion followed by contraction contributed to the “explosion” of the cell. However, after months of replicable effects, the phenomenon slowly ceased."
The importance or patterns or the spacio-temporal component of magnetic field is also underlined in  where:
Cellular viability as a function of magnetic field exposure was significantly different, with a statistically smaller number of cells remaining viable after exposure to ELF-EMF than the static magnetic field, which showed no difference from controls.
A great advantage is that unlike chemical therapies and ionizing radiation, the ELF-EMF diminish the growth of only malignant cells but not normal cells. In the latest investigation of Persiger et al.  they confirm that the effects of electromagnetic fields on melanoma cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character, with some configurations that provoke inhibition of cell proliferation and others with no effects, and all this using same intensities and frequencies (but differently activated over time).
The capacities of applied ELF-EMF to affect cancer specifically is very probably related to the specific endogenous electromagnetic fields of cancer cells, to this issue is a complete section  dedicated here, where numerous facts and theories are presented. In  for example it is proposed that disrupted respiration of cancer cells generate incoherent EM that in turn promote DNA strand break, and in  it is proposed that it can be used the enhanced electromagnetism from cancer’s centrosome clusters to attract therapeutic nanoparticles, in  is expressed that:
" Disturbances in oxidative metabolism and coherence are a central issue in cancer development. Oxidative metabolism may be impaired by decreased pyruvate transfer to the mitochondrial matrix, either by parasitic consumption and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. This can in turn lead to disturbance in water molecules’ ordering, diminished power, and coherence of the electromagnetic field. In tumours with the Warburg (reverse Warburg) effect, mitochondrial dysfunction affects cancer cells (fibroblasts associated with cancer cells), and the electromagnetic field generated by microtubules in cancer cells has low power (high power due to transport of energy-rich metabolites from fibroblasts), disturbed coherence, and a shifted frequency spectrum according to changed power."
Some Experimental Findings
In  it has been found a similar down-regulatory effect of EMF on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as would be seen in morphine treatment so ELF-EMF of very low intensities have potential to be used also as complementary or alternative treatment to morphine, reducing both pain and enhance patient quality.
In an experimental thesis  were physiologically patterned low frequency electromagnetic fields are used, it's show that exposure provoke the aggregation of bacteria in solutions, with changes in the structures of water that surround them, this effect is also seen around proteins were water is irradiated with infrared light  and the effect is related to the existence of Exclusion Zone waters, see section .
In  an ELF-EMF of 9 Hz was shown to exert the greatest effect on aqueous solutions of the hepatitis virus DNA amplicons, with changes in their hydration sell that suggest, again, that the aqueous milieu plays a key role as a primary target for weak effects. In this sense is very interesting the possible electromagnetic mediated DNA-Water interaction that is supported in this robust theoretical work , you can see this  section for more.
In  it's believed that:
" ... if we are in an environment with bio-inspired electromagnetic signals generated by mimicking natural earth and body cells frequencies (ELF's), then our cells will be more energetic and active, providing greater health … This innovative bio-inspired system has been applied for the health enhancement of humans, equines and pets etc. … It has been proven that this bio-inspired system can be effectively applied to many areas such as (1) human health enhancement and illness treatment, (2) pet health enhancement, (3) equine health treatment and (4) reduction or elimination of 'jet lag'."
Returning to the detected outcomes, in  it has found that the exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induce mitochondrial permeability transition (that can lead to mitochondrial swelling and cell death through apoptosis or necrosis depending on the particular biological setting), presumably through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Evidences in  results confirmed that the ELF-EMF affects not only the ROS product but also the enzymatic activity with the modulation of catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxid protein expression.
In , after exposure of human embryonic kidney cells grown in culture, it is increased both arachidonic acid (AA) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4) levels in HEK293 cells, and is concluded that 50Hz ELF-EMF inhibits T-type calcium channels (widely expressed and that play key roles in various physiological functions like neuronal burst firing, cardiac pacemaking or secretion of hormones) through AA/LTE4 signaling pathway. The effect on those channels is also found in  where the promoted Ca2+ influx could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. The results of  in cultured entorhinal cortex neurons, on the contrary, has found that exposure have to influences the intracellular calcium dynamics via a calcium channel-independent mechanism.
Very low intensities of ELF-EMF can also affect cells (and the brain as we will see later) in a variety of ways, for example in  they detect that the immune system can be stimulated with intensities of 0.005 mt, and in  using the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation readout in various cell lines as sensitivity detector of these cell to external ELF-MF brings the outcome that all the seven cell lines tested are sensitive to ELF-MF strengths of as low as 0.0015 mT.
Effects on Brain/Neurons
Various studies have been focused in neuronal or cerebellar cells and it is found that ELF-EMFs interact readily with the central nervous system.
In  Increased Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells as a result of cAMP/PKA pathway modulation was detected after 50 Hz 1mT exposure, in  is show that ELF-MF and ischemia separately increase oxidative stress on brains, but when applied together they have capability to decrease values it.
More generally in the brain function, relative low intensity (maximum 0.3 mT) ELF-EMFs, in the frequency range used by the brain, have show to change brain's intrinsic EEG, with for example, decreased alpha band on frontal and central areas in closed-eyes state . In  the results have led to the authors to conclude that exposure to ELF-EMF facilitates vesicle endocytosis and synaptic plasticity in a calcium-dependent manner by increasing calcium channel expression at the nerve terminal.
Exposure to 5Hz 0.1mT  increased the numbers of rearing, sniffing, and locomotor activity of Wistar rats, with alterations in plasma stress hormones and glucose levels bot in 1Hz and 5Hz exposure frequencies used.
In an interesting investigation  electroencephalographic activity of a healthy subject originally obtained from it's quantitative electroencephalograph was recorded, those records where applied by a device to another subject’s brain diagnosed with toxic encephalopathy at really low intensities, 0.001-0.007 mT, capable however to cause significant amelioration in the subject’s diagnosis:
" In this experiment a 30 year old male university student who had been diagnosed with toxic encephalopathy six years previously and who exhibited compromised concentration, focus and processing efficiency was exposed for 30 min once per week for 6 weeks to the magnetic field equivalents of another person’s normal quantitative EEG patterns that had been recorded from each of 16 sensors. The specific magnetic field equivalents from each sensor had been reapplied through each of 16 solenoids placed in the same position over the patient’s scalp. Within two sessions there was visually conspicuous normalization of the patient’s EEG, marked reduction in the d.c. transients correlated with his distraction, and increased proficiency for scholastic performance. These results strongly suggest that applying precise spatially distributed magnetic field equivalents matched for each EEG sensor through solenoids with microTesla intensities may be able to normalize aberrant electrophysiological activity and to improve cognitive deficits."
Although the intensities used in the previous experiments are low, it has been demonstrated that the brain is capable to detect even lesser intensities, in  experiment demonstrated that when geomagnetic activity in the earth is at slightly altered stormy condition, even a fixed "death" brain senses it in a specific manner when the provoked microvolt fluctuations causes an increases of alpha power in the right parahippocampal gyrus:
" Here we report for the first time that fixed human tissue during specific stimulation displayed significant enhancement with geomagnetic activity and the effect was prominent within the right hemisphere. In addition we demonstrate that the specific patterns of physiologically patterned magnetic fields that are most effective for producing powerful subjective experiences also elicited the greatest response from the fixed brain tissue."
One of the possible mechanism for those subtle energy detection may reside in the ion cyclotron resonance of the different bio-molecules.
In a somewhat extended line of research, very low intensity ELF-EMF in the order of the geomagnetic field intensity or less are used at frequencies that correspond to ion cyclotron frequencies of specific molecules, for example in case of ca2+ :
" Ca2+ ions within the specific centers of Ca2+binding proteins are the primary target of the magnetic field. Bound Ca2+ is regarded as an isotropic charged oscillator, and the MF causes precession of the axis of the Ca2+ oscillator vibration. Significant changes in the character of precession, as well as in the time average value of the degree of polarization of the oscillations of Ca2+ in a plane perpendicular to MF direction, can be induced if an alternating low frequency MF with specific resonance parameters is applied ... A low frequency MF with Ca2+ ion resonance parameters (Ca2+MF) causes a change in the Ca2+ binding constant of the protein, that is, a change in the duration of Ca2+ association with the Ca2+ binding center of the molecule, by approximately one order of magnitude."
In the mentioned experimental paper using the calculated frequency of 18.5 HZ (third harmonic of the main “cyclotron” frequency) a considerable effect on the level of activity of Ca2+ dependent proteinases is achieved, which is further confirmed in . Use of the Ca2+ main cyclotron frequency at 7 Hz is decided in  where an important change in shape and morphology with the outgrowth of neuritic-like structures together with a lower proliferation rate and metabolic activity is achieved for human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells.
In the review , in the first table, is visible the calculated ion cyclotron frequencies, those are for 0.001 mT “environmental” static MF intensity, for other intensities simply it must be multiply, for example the ICR for Ca2+ at 0.01 mT will be 7.6 Hz. In table 2 are listed various experiments with different outcomes where Ca2+ ICR was used with intensities ranging from 0.010 mT to 0.060 mT (as comparison, earth geomagnetic fields range proximately from 0.025 mT to 0.065 mT). As mentioned, It must be said that ICR experiments also involve a static magnetic field with a strength that is in the same order of magnitude, to emulate in a controlled way a geomagnetic static MF.
In another experiment where is used the hydronium (H3O+) ion cyclotron frequency  it is found that:
" ... under ICR stimulation water undergoes a transition to a form that is hydroxonium-like, with the subsequent emission of a transient 48.5 Hz magnetic signal, in the absence of any other measurable field. Our results indicate that hydronium resonance stimulation alters the structure of water, enhancing the concentration of EZ-water. These results are not only consistent with Del Giudice’s model of electromagnetically coherent domains, but they can also be interpreted to show that these domains exist in quantized spin states."
For more on Exclusion Zone (EZ) water you can see the section .
Further confirmation of this effects come in  where weak magnetic field (50 nT) hydronium ICR at the field combination of 7.84 Hz, 7.5 µT, markedly changes water structure, as evidenced by the finding of an altered index of refraction exactly at this combined field.
Ion cyclotron frequencies of higher harmonics are used in a recent Nature publication  where ICR related frequency components significantly increased bone formation activity and it slightly increased bone resorption activity indirectly on mice. The frequencies used in this experiment are based on the following premises:
" According to ICR model, the resonant frequencies of many biologically important ions, such as Na + , K + and Ca 2+ , are intermittent frequency points and fall within 1–100 Hz 23, 25 . Apart from the fundamental frequency of resonant frequencies, when the frequency of EMF is equal to higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequencies, the biological resonant effectiveness might also be attained 26, 27 . Moreover, these higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequencies of the biologically relevant ions is blow 3,000 Hz 24 . In addition, high frequency EMF is also capable of inducing osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells 28 . Therefore, we designed four kinds of EMF with different frequency spectrum bands (1–100 Hz, 100–3,000 Hz, 3,000–50,000 Hz and 1–50,000 Hz), among which 1–100 Hz and 100–3,000 Hz are designated as ICR frequency bands."
Ion cyclotron resonance also was used to suppress atrial fibrillation  in an experiment that use very low intensity fields (4 orders of magnitude less than geomagnetic fields) applied over different levels of the cardiac autonomic nervous system of dogs, and the authors believe that the effect is due to some form of subtle resonance related to neurotransmitters, they calculated ICR for vasostatin-1 a critical element in suppressing the activity of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system.
A review on ICR can be found in .
Very related and complementary are the researches that pay more attention to the possible pernicious effects of the indiscriminate artificial ELF-EMF generated in this technological and industrial era, and that are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. There is a section dedicated to that , where it can be found, as example, an interesting study that speak about radiation effects on the secondary structure of proteins  among others.
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3. Cheng, Yannan, et al. "Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhance the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells cultured from ischemic brains." NeuroReport 26.15 (2015): 896-902.
4. Gao, Qiang. “The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in rats with cerebral ischemia.” The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2016).
6. Ma, Qinlong, et al. "Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields promote in vitro neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells via up-regulating TRPC1." PloS one 11.3 (2016): e0150923.
8. Konovalov, D. A., et al. "Effect of weak electromagnetic fields on self-organization of highly diluted solutions of alkylated p-sulfonatocalix  arene." Doklady Physical Chemistry. Vol. 463. No. 1. Pleiades Publishing, 2015.
12. Song, Ming-Yu, et al. "The time-dependent manner of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization." Cell biochemistry and biophysics 69.1 (2014): 47-54.
15. Ledda, Mario, et al. "Non Ionising Radiation as a Non Chemical Strategy in Regenerative Medicine: Ca 2+-ICR “In Vitro” Effect on Neuronal Differentiation and Tumorigenicity Modulation in NT2 Cells." PloS one 8.4 (2013): e61535.
17. Karbowski, Lukasz M., et al. "Seeking the source of transience for a unique magnetic field pattern that completely dissolves cancer cells in vitro." Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 8.8 (2015): 531.
18. Murugan, N. J., L. M. Karbowski, and M. A. Persinger. "Elimination of Frequency Modulated Magnetic Field Suppression of Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Simultaneous Exposure to a Pattern Associated With Memory in Mammals." Arch Can Res 4 (2016): 2.
24. Ross, Christina L., Thaleia Teli, and Benjamin S. Harrison. "Effect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 35.3 (2016): 206-213.
31. Feng, Baihuan, et al. "Exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induced mitochondrial permeability transition through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway." International journal of radiation biology 92.3 (2016): 148-155.
32. Patruno, Antonia, et al. "Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells." Life sciences 121 (2015): 117-123.
35. He, Yan-Lin, et al. "Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Modulates Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells through Increase of AA/PGE 2 and EP Receptor-Mediated cAMP/PKA Pathway." PloS one 8.1 (2013): e54376.
36. Balind, Snežana Rauš, et al. "Extremely low frequency magnetic field (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) reduces oxidative stress in the brain of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia." PloS one 9.2 (2014): e88921.
38. Sun, Zhi-cheng, et al. "Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields facilitate vesicle endocytosis by increasing presynaptic calcium channel expression at a central synapse." Scientific reports 6 (2016).
40. Kantserova, N. P., et al. "Modulation of Ca2+ dependent protease activity in fish and invertebrates by weak low-frequency magnetic fields." Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry 39.4 (2013): 373-377.
51. Aikins, Anastasia Rosebud, et al. "Extremely low‐frequency electromagnetic field induces neural differentiation of hBM‐MSCs through regulation of (Zn)‐metallothionein‐3." Bioelectromagnetics 38.5 (2017): 364-373.
52. Mastrodonato, Alessia, et al. "Olfactory memory is enhanced in mice exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields via Wnt/β-catenin dependent modulation of subventricular zone neurogenesis." Scientific reports 8.1 (2018): 262.
53. Zhang, Yingchi, et al. "Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields promote mesenchymal stem cell migration by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ and activating the FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathways in vitro." Stem cell research & therapy 9.1 (2018): 143.
54. Jeong, Won-Yong, et al. "Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field promotes astrocytic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by modulating SIRT1 expression." Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 81.7 (2017): 1356-1362.
55. Morabito, Caterina, et al. "Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affect Myogenic Processes in C2C12 Myoblasts: Role of Gap-Junction-Mediated Intercellular Communication." BioMed research international 2017 (2017).
56. Tessaro, Lucas WE, et al. "Application of dynamic magnetic fields to B16-BL6 melanoma cells linked with decrease in cellular viability after short exposures." Riset Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Science 1.1 (2018).
57. Wiese, Michelle Kim, L. de Jager, and C. E. Brand. "Evidence of immune stimulation following short-term exposure to specific extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields." Medical Technology SA 31.2 (2017): 1-7.
59. Saroka, Kevin S., Andrew E. Pellegrini, and Michael A. Persinger. "Persistent Improvements in the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEG) Profile of a Patient Diagnosed With Toxic Encephalopathy by Weekly Application of Multifocal Magnetic Fields Generated by the QEEG of a Normal Person." World Scientific News 58 (2016): 15-33.
60. Rouleau, Nicolas, and Michael A. Persinger. "Neural Tissues Filter Electromagnetic Fields: Investigating Regional Processing of Induced Current in Ex vivo Brain Specimens." Biology and Medicine 9.2 (2017).
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 09/09/2018
↓ tables updated: 19/04/2022
Applied Fields - Experimental
ELF - Electromagnetic Fields Experiments
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Frequency - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|A||Endogenous Ca2+ release was involved in 50-Hz MF-induced proliferation via Akt-SK1 signal cascade in human amniotic epithelial cells||50 Hz||2022-(1)||An-Fang Ye, Xiao-Chen Liu, Liang-Jing Chen,Yong-Peng Xia, Xiao-Bo Yang, Wen-Jun Sun|
|A||Quantum Medicine: A Role of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Management of Chronic Pain||-||2022-(1)||Giovanni Barassi, Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Raffaello Pellegrino, Marco Supplizi, Loris Prosperi, Celeste Marinucci, Edoardo Di Simone, Chiara Mariani, Alì Younes, Angelo Di Iorio|
|A||Effect of weak alternating magnetic fields on planarian regeneration||0.074 mT||2022-(1)||Artem Ermakov, Vera Afanasyeva, Olga Ermakova, Artem Blagodatski, Anton Popov|
|F||Effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on light-induced electric reactions in wheat (Schumann resonance frequency)||14.3 Hz - 0.009 mT||2022-(9)||Marina Grinberg, Maxim Mudrilov, Elizaveta Kozlova, Vladimir Sukhov, Fedor Sarafanov, Andrey Evtushenko, Nikolay Ilin, Vladimir Vodeneev, Colin Price, Evgeny Mareev|
|F||The Influence of Burst-Firing EMF on Forskolin-Induced Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Plasma Membrane Extensions||0.0003-0.01 mT||2021-(17)||Trevor N. Carniello, Robert M. Lafrenie, Blake T. Dotta|
|F||Electromagnetic Field Stimulation Attenuates Phasic Nociception after Complete Spinal Cord Injury in Rats||50 Hz - 0.018 mT||2021-(16)||Suneel Kumar, Ajay Pal, Suman Jain, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Rashmi Mathur|
|F||Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Fields on Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ICR)||3.9 Hz - 0.0001-0.0003 mT (+ static 0.01-0.04 mT)||2021-(12)||Janus A. J. Haagensen, Michael Bache, Livio Giuliani, Nikolaj S. Blom|
|F||Complex Electromagnetic Fields Reduce Candida albicans Planktonic Growth and Its Adhesion to Titanium Surfaces||6-70 Hz - 0.006-0.095 mT||2021-(14)||Simonetta D’Ercole, Silvia Di Lodovico, Giovanna Iezzi, Tania Vanessa Pierfelice, Emira D’Amico, Alessandro Cipollina, Adriano Piattelli, Luigina Cellini, Morena Petrini|
|F||Effects of Complex Electromagnetic Fields on Candida albicans Adhesion and Proliferation on Polyacrylic Resin||1-250 Hz - 0.001-0.25 mT||2021-(11)||Morena Petrini, Silvia Di Lodovico, Giovanna Iezzi, Alessandro Cipollina, Adriano Piattelli, Luigina Cellini, Simonetta D’Ercole|
|A||Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy at Different Frequencies on Bone Mass and Microarchitecture in Osteoporotic Mice||8 Hz, 50 Hz, 75 Hz - 1.6 mT||2021-(1)||Liqiong Wang, Yi Li, Suhang Xie, Jinming Huang, Kangping Song, Chengqi He|
|F||Influence of Magnetic Field with Schumann Resonance Frequencies on Photosynthetic Light Reactions in Wheat and Pea (some Schumann resonance frequencies)||7.8 Hz, 14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz - 0.018 mT||2021-(18)||Vladimir Sukhov, Ekaterina Sukhova, Yulia Sinitsyna, Ekaterina Gromova, Natalia Mshenskaya, Anastasiia Ryabkova, Nikolay Ilin, Vladimir Vodeneev, Evgeny Mareev, Colin Price|
|F||Pulsed magnetic field maintains vascular homeostasis against H2O2-induced oxidative stress||40 Hz - 1.5 mT||2020-(8)||Ismail Gunay, Ilknur Baldan, Murat Tokus, Cagil Coskun, Isil Ocal, Figen A. Cicek|
|A||Effect of Intermittent ELF MF on Umbilical Cord Blood Lymphocytes (Schumann resonance frequency)||7.8 Hz||2020-(1)||Lucián Zastko, Leonardo Makinistian, Andrea Moravčíková, Ján Jakuš, Igor Belyaev|
|A||Cell physiological responses of RAW264 macrophage cells to a 50-Hz magnetic field||50 Hz - 0.5 mT||2020-(1)||Chihiro Nishigaki, Maresuke Nakayama, Hidetake Miyata|
|F||Short ELF-EMF Exposure Targets SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling in THP-1 Cells||50 Hz - 1 mT||2020-(14)||Patruno Antonia, Costantini Erica, Ferrone Alessio, Pesce Mirko, Diomede Francesca, Trubiani Oriana, Reale Marcella|
|F||Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve the healing process of Achilles tendinopathy||75 Hz - 1.5 mT||2020-(10)||C. Perucca Orfei, A. B. Lovati, G. Lugano, M. Viganò, M. Bottagisio, D. D’Arrigo, V. Sansone, S. Setti, L. de Girolamo|
|F||Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Increase the Expression of Anagen-Related Molecules in Human Dermal Papilla Cells via GSK-3β/ERK/Akt Signaling Pathway||70 Hz - 0.5-10 mT||2020-(11)||Ga-Eun Ki, Yu-Mi Kim, Han-Moi Lim, Eun-Cheol Lee, Yun-Kyong Choi, Young-Kwon Seo|
|A||Effect of Extremely Low Power Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field on Germination and Other Characteristics in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) Seeds||10 Hz - 0.00003 mT||2020-(1)||Balasubramanian Ramesh, Govindababu Kavitha, Sendurpandi Gokiladevi, Rajagopal K. Balachandar, Kuppuswamy Kavitha, Akelayil C. Gengadharan, Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnan|
|A||Electromagnetic field affects the voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.3||20 Hz - 0.26 mT, 0.90 mT||2020-(1)||C. Cecchetto, M. Maschietto, P. Boccaccio, S. Vassanelli|
|F||Pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects of pulsed magnetic field treatments in rats with experimental acute inflammation||1-14 Hz - 1 mT||2020-(12)||Tufan Mert, Selma Yaman|
|F||Characterizing the Structural Influence of Electromagnetic Field Application Geometry on Biological Systems||-||2020-(258)||Trevor N. Carniello|
|F||On the Origin of Pain – The ‘Pain Channel’ Hypothesis||-||2020-(29)||Philip B. Cornish, Anne P. Cornish|
|F||The Effects of Bio-inspired Electromagnetic Fields on Healthy Enhancement with Case Studies||0.5-18 Hz - 0.000006-0.0001 mT||2019-(13)||Shujun Zhang, Mike Clark, Xuelei Liu, Donghui Chen, Paula Thomas, Luquan Ren|
|A||Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields Attenuate the Inducibility of Atrial Fibrillation||0.89 Hz - 0.0000000032 mT||2019-(1)||Daniel Sohinki, Stavros Stavrakis, Sunny S. Po, Julie Stoner, Benjamin J. Scherlag|
|F||Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy Improves Osseous Consolidation after High Tibial Osteotomy in Elderly Patients—A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial||16 Hz - 0.006-0.28 mT||2019-(14)||Patrick Ziegler, Andreas K. Nussler, Benjamin Wilbrand, Karsten Falldorf, Fabian Springer, Anne-Kristin Fentz, Georg Eschenburg, Andreas Ziegler, Ulrich Stöckle, Elke Maurer, Atesch Ateschrang, Steffen Schröter, Sabrina Ehnert|
|F||Cellular calcium concentration changes as a response to intercellular periodic signals and cell synchronization||16-45 Hz - 0.000178 mT||2019-(9)||Yongjun Zhou|
|A||Evidences of plasma membrane-mediated ROS generation upon ELF exposure in neuroblastoma cells supported by a computational multiscale approach||50 Hz - 1 mT||2019-(1)||Caterina Merla, Micaela Liberti, Claudia Consales, Agnese Denzi, Francesca Apollonio, Carmela Marino, Barbara Benassi|
|F||Electromagnetic Fields (0.04 to 0.39) mT effect on cellular growth cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains||50 Hz - 0.04-0.39 mT||2019-(11)||Eliseo Amado-González, Alveiro Álvarez Ovallos, Alfonso Quijano Parra|
|F||Evaluation of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli||various - 0.1-3 mT||2019-(11)||Yu Chen, Zhongzhen Cai, Qian Feng, Peng Gao, Yongdong Yang, Xuemei Bai, Bruce Q. Tang|
|F||Ion Cyclotron Resonance: Results and Prospects for Psychiatry (ICR)||10-50 Hz - 0.010-0.015 mT||2019-(9)||Mario Betti, Marco Paolo Carlo Picchi, Marco Saettoni, Alessandro Greco|
|F||Specific low frequency electromagnetic fields induce epigenetic and functional changes in U937 cells||20-3200 Hz - 0.02-0.4 mT||2018-(14)||Giulia Pinton, Angelo Ferraro, Massimo Balma, Laura Moro|
|F||Low-intensity electromagnetic fields induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species||10 Hz - 1.8 mT||2018-(17)||Rachel M. Sherrard, Natalie Morellini, Nathalie Jourdan, Mohamed El-Esawi, Louis-David Arthaut, Christine Niessner, Francois Rouyer, Andre Klarsfeld, Mohamed Doulazmi, Jacques Witczak, Alain d’Harlingue, Jean Mariani, Ian Mclure, Carlos F. Martino, Margaret Ahmad|
|F||Extremely low- frequency electromagnetic fields accelerates wound healing modulating MMP- 9 and inflammatory cytokines||50 Hz - 1 mT||2018-(10)||A. Patruno, A. Ferrone, E. Costantini, S. Franceschelli, M. Pesce, L. Speranza, P. Amerio, C. D'Angelo, M. Felaco, A. Grilli, M. Reale|
|F||Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on nonspecific low back pain patients: a randomized controlled trial||50 Hz - 2 mT||2018-(6)||Ahmed Mohamed Elshiwi, Hamada Ahmed Hamada, Dalia Mosaad, Ibrahim Ragab, Ghada Mohamed Koura, Saud Mashi Alrawaili|
|F||ICR-Like and Osteoarthritis in Geriatric Patients: Pilot Study at an RCH Facility (ICR)||40-80 Hz - 0.04 mT||2018-(14)||Alessandro Greco, Valentina Lorengo, Nadia Malfatti, Elisabetta Zanella, Laura Sarnella, Manuela Sicher, Ilaria Frati, Nicolò Panza|
|F||Pulsed electromagnetic fields alleviate streptozotocin-induced diabetic muscle atrophy||15 Hz - 1.43 mT||2018-(7)||Jin Yang, Lijun Sun, Xiushan Fan, Bo Yin, Yiting Kang, Shucheng An, Liang Tang|
|F||Towards a mechanism of action of a weak magnetic field on bacterial growth||20-50 Hz - 0.5 mT||2018-(49)||Kevin G. Do|
|F||Effective dose analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field exposure to growth of S. termophilus, L. lactis, L. acidophilus bacteria||? - 0.1-0.3 mT||2018-(11)||Sudarti, T. Prihandono, Yushardi, Z. R. Ridlo, A. Kristinawati|
|A||Nonthermal control of Escherichia coli growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves||0.1-1 Hz - 0.0006 mT||2018-(1)||F. F. Al-Harbi, Dalal H. M. Alkhalifah, Zainab M. Elqahtani, Fadel M Ali, Shaimaa A. Mohamed, A. M. M. Abdelbacki|
|A||Influences of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Germination and Early Growth of Mung Beans||7.83 Hz - 0.3 mT||2018-(1)||Pao-Cheng Huang, Jing-Yau Tang, Chen-Hui Feng, Po-Yuan Cheng, Ling-Sheng Jang|
|F||Influence of Ca2+ Cyclotron Resonance-tuned Magnetic Fields on Germination and Growth of Wheat Seedlings (ICR)||11 Hz, 16 Hz - 0.1-0.3 mT||2018-(11)||Krzysztof Kornarzyński, Siemowit Muszyński|
|F||A Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Protects against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Modulating the Endocannabinoid System in HT22 Cells||15 Hz - 0.96 mT||2017-(8)||Xin Li, Haoxiang Xu, Tao Lei, Yuefan Yang, Da Jing, Shuhui Dai, Peng Luo, Qiaoling Xu|
|F||A randomized controlled trial of electromagnetic therapy on microcirculation and healing of painful vascular leg ulceration||12.5 Hz||2017-(16)||Eman M. Othman|
|F||Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in blood and liver of diabetic rats||1-40 Hz - 1.5 mT||2017-(7)||Hafiza Gözen, Can Demirel, Müslüm Akan, Mehmet Tarakçıoğlu|
|F||The Role of Lipid Peroxidation and Myeloperoxidase in Priming a Respiratory Burst in Neutrophils under the Action of Combined Constant and Alternating Magnetic Fields||1-16.5 Hz - 0.00086 mT||2017-(5)||V. V. Novikov, E. V. Yablokova, G. V. Novikov, E. E. Fesenko|
|F||Circadian Rhythm Influences the Promoting Role of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats||13 Hz - 0.3 mT||2017-(14)||Shu Zhu, Jun Ge, Zhongyang Liu, Liang Liu, Da Jing, Mingzi Ran, Meng Wang, Liangliang Huang, Yafeng Yang, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo|
|F||Dynamic Imaging Demonstrates That Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) Suppress IL-6 Transcription in Bovine Nucleus Pulposus Cells||3.85 Hz||2017-(10)||Xinyan Tang, Tamara Alliston, Dezba Coughlin, Stephanie Miller, Nianli Zhang, Erik I. Waldorff, James T. Ryaby, Jeffrey C. Lotz|
|F||Effect of a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field on expression and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α in nucleus pulposus cells||2 Hz - 0.000628 - 0.003769 mT||2017-(9)||Jun Zou, Yufeng Chen, Jiale Qian, Huilin Yang|
|F||Evidence of Immune Stimulation Following Short-Term Exposure to Specific Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields||20-5000 Hz - 0.005 mT||2017-(7)||M. K. Wiese, L. de Jager, C. E. Brand|
|F||Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields||50 Hz - 0.001-1 mT||2017-(14)||Einat Kapri-Pardes, Tamar Hanoch, Galia Maik-Rachline, Manuel Murbach , Patricia L. Bounds, Niels Kuster, Rony Seger|
|A||miRNA expression profile is altered differentially in the rat brain compared to blood after experimental exposure to 50 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic field||50 Hz - 1 mT||2017-(1)||Mehmet Emil Erdal, Senay Görücü Yilmaz, Serkan Gürgül, Cosar Uzun, Didem Derici, Nurten Erdal|
|F||Exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induced mitochondrial permeability transition through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway||50 Hz - 0.4 mT||2016-(8)||Baihuan Feng , Liping Qiu , Chunmei Ye , Liangjing Chen , Yiti Fu and Wenjun Sun|
|F||The activation of melanogenesis by p-CREB and MITF signaling with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on B16F10 melanoma||30-100 Hz - 2 mT||2016-(8)||Yu-Mi Kim, Sang-Eun Cho, Young-Kwon Seo|
|F||Weak-field H3O+ ion cyclotron resonance alters water refractive index (ICR)||1.82-7.85 Hz - 0.00005 mT||2016-(25)||Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi, Mario Ledda, Abraham Liboff, Livio Giuliani, Alberto Foletti|
|F||Study of a bionic system for health enhancements (Earth frequencies & intensities)||0.5-18 Hz - 0.000006-0.001 mT||2016-(15)||Shujun Zhang, Michael Clark, Donghui Chen, Luquan Ren|
|F||The Effects of the bio-inspired pulsed electromagnetic fields on ATP and health||-||2016-(18)||Shujun Zhang , Michael Clark, Xuelei Liu, Donghui Chen, Luquan Ren|
|F||An Investigation on the Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Electrocardiograms (ECGs)||16Hz - 0.00233 - 0.00654 mT||2016-(10)||Qiang Fang, Seedahmed S. Mahmoud, Jiayong Yan, Hui Li|
|F||The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in a Rat Model – Clinical and Imaging Findings||15.7-23 Hz - 0.05 mT||2016-(6)||Yaron Segal, Lear Segal, Ester Shohami, Efrat Sasson, Tamar Blumenfeld-Katzir, Abraham Cohen, Aharon Levy, Ariela Alter|
|A||Schwann-like cells differentiated from human dental pulp stem cells combined with a pulsed electromagnetic field can improve peripheral nerve regeneration||50 Hz - 1 mT||2016-(1)||Wei-Hong Hei, Soochan Kim, Joo-Cheol Park, Young-Kwon Seo, Soung-Min Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee|
|F||Electromagnetic fields in the treatment of chronic lower back pain in patients with degenerative disc disease||0.92-9.6 Hz - 0.0033 - 0.0343 nT||2016-(8)||Amarjit S. Arneja, Alan Kotowich, Doug Staley, Randy Summers, Paramjit S. Tappi|
|A||The effects of low-frequency magnetic field exposure on the growth and biochemical parameters in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)||16Hz, 50Hz - 0.2 mT||2016-(1)||M. Mroczek-Zdyrska, K. Kornarzyński, S. Pietruszewski, M. Gagoś|
|F||Influence of Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Gene Expression in Muscle Cells, Peripheral Circulation, and Metabolic Factors in Aging Adults||< 0.1 mT||2016-(9)||Gyula Kóródi, Ferenc Ihász, János Rikk|
|F||Establishing a Mechanism for the Effects of Specific Patterned Electromagnetic Fields at the Molecular Level Using Fragmented Bacteria (water)||6-25 Hz - 0.0003-0.0038 mT||2015-(26)||Ryan Bidal|
|A||Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Metabolism of Lubricin of Rat Chondrocytes||75 Hz - 2.3 mT||2015-(1)||Wei Wang, Wenkai Li, Mingyu Song, Sheng Wei, Chaoxu Liu, Yong Yang, Hua Wu|
|F||Effects of electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure at different frequency and duration on the peripheral nerve regeneration: in vitro and in vivo study||50 Hz, 150 Hz - 1mT||2015-(29)||Wei-Hong Hei, Soo-Hwan Byun, Jong-Sik Kim, Soochan Kim, Young-Kwon Seo, Joo-Cheol Park, Soung-Min Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee|
|F||Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy Promotes Healing and Microcirculation of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Pilot Study||12 Hz||2015-(8)||Rachel Lai-Chu Kwan, Wing-Cheung Wong, Siu-Leung Yip, Ka-Lun Chan, Yong-Ping Zheng, Gladys Lai-Ying Cheing|
|F||Effect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model||5 Hz - 0.0015 mT||2015-(9)||Christina L. Ross, Thaleia Teli, Benjamin S. Harrison|
|F||Non‐thermal extremely low frequency magnetic field effects on opioid related behaviors: Snails to humans, mechanisms to therapy||-||2015-(17)||Frank S. Prato|
|F||Modulation of Ca2+ Dependent Proteolysis under the Action of Weak Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ICR)||18.5 Hz - 0.044 mT + SmF - 0.024 mT||2015-(6)||N. P. Kantserova, L. A. Lysenko, N. V. Ushakova, V. V. Krylov, N. N. Nemova|
|F||The Use of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields to Suppress Atrial Fibrillation (ICR)||0.92 Hz - 0.0034 nT||2015-(29)||Lilei Yu, John W. Dyer, Benjamin J. Scherlag , Stavros Stavrakis, Yong Sha, Xia Sheng, Paul Garabelli, Jerry Jacobson, Sunny S. Po|
|A||Effect of low-frequency magnetic field on formation of pigments of Monascus purpureus||0.4 mT||2015-(1)||Jialan Zhang, Dongjie Zeng, Cui Xu, Mengxiang Gao|
|A||Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields affect pigment production of Monascus purpureus in liquid-state fermentation||0.1 - 1.2 mT||2014-(1)||J. Zhang, K. Zhou, L. Wang, M. Gao|
|F||Magnetic Field Configurations Corresponding to Electric Field Patterns That Evoke Long-Term Potentiation Shift Power Spectra of Light Emissions from Microtubules from Non-Neural Cells||0.001 mT||2014-(8)||Blake T. Dotta, David A. E. Vares, Carly A. Buckner, Robert M. Lafrenie, Michael A. Persinger|
|F||Applications of Weak, Complex Magnetic Fields that Attenuate EAE in Rats to a Human Subject with Moderately Severe Multiple Sclerosis||7 Hz - 0.00001-0.00001 mT||2014-(4)||Michael A Persinger, Stanley A. Koren, Linda S. St. Pierre|
|F||Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields inhibits T-type calcium channels via AA/LTE4 signaling pathway||50 Hz - 0.2 mT||2014-(11)||Yujie Cui, Xiaoyu Liu, Tingting Yang, Yan-Ai Mei, Changlong Hu|
|F||Lorentz force in water: evidence that hydronium cyclotron resonance enhances polymorphism (ICR)||33.72 Hz - 0.042 mT + SmF - 0.010 mT||2014-(13)||E. D’Emilia, L. Giuliani, A. Lisi, M. Ledda, S. Grimaldi, L. Montagnier, A.R. Liboff|
|F||Effect of pulsed electromagnetic energy therapy on pain and function in participants with knee osteoarthritis||15 Hz||2014-(3)||Binal A. Gajjar, Megha S. Sheth, Srishti S. Sharma, Neeta J. Vyas|
|F||Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells||50 Hz - 1 mT||2014-(7)||Antonia Patruno, Shams Tabrez, Mirko Pesce, Shazi Shakil, Mohammad A. Kamal, Marcella Reale|
|F||Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats||1-5 Hz - 0.1 mT||2014-(7)||Seyed Mohammad Mahdavi, Hedayat Sahraei, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Hassan Tavakoli|
|A||EMOST: elimination of chronic constipation and diarrhea by low-frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields||-||2014-(1)||István Bókkon, Attila Erdőfi-Szabó, Attila Till, Tünde Lukács, Éva Erdőfi-Nagy|
|F||Evaluation of the effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on survival of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus||2-500 Hz - 0.5-2.5 mT||2013-(17)||Istiaque Ahmed, Taghrid Istivan, Irena Cosic, Elena Pirogova|
|F||Ion Cyclotron Resonance interactions in living systems (ICR)||-||2013-(14)||Abraham R. Liboff|
|F||Non Ionising Radiation as a Non Chemical Strategy in Regenerative Medicine: Ca2+-ICR ‘‘In Vitro’’ Effect on Neuronal Differentiation and Tumorigenicity Modulation in NT2 Cells (ICR)||7 Hz - 0.002 mT + SmF - 0.010 mT||2013-(12)||Mario Ledda, Francesca Megiorni, Deleana Pozzi, Livio Giuliani, Enrico D’Emilia, Sara Piccirillo, Cristiana Mattei, Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi|
|F||Modulation of Ca2+ Dependent Protease Activity in Fish and Invertebrates by Weak LowFrequency Magnetic Fields (ICR)||18.5 Hz - 0.044 mT + SmF - 0.024 mT||2013-(5)||N. P. Kantserovaa,, N. V. Ushakovab, V. V. Krylovb, L. A. Lysenkoa, N. N. Nemova|
|F||DNA and Cell Reprogramming Via Epigenetic Information Delivered by Magnetic Fields, Sound Vibration and Coherent Water||-||2013-(18)||Carlo Ventura, Rollin McCraty|
|F||Inhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs)||50 Hz - 2 mT||2013-(11)||Simona Delle Monache, Adriano Angelucci, Patrizia Sanita, Roberto Iorio, Francesca Bennato, Fabrizio Mancini, Giancaterino Gualtieri, Rosella Cardigno Colonna|
|F||A Novel Magnetic Stimulator Increases Experimental Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers - A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Crossover Study||< 100 Hz - 0.4-1.4 mT||2013-(7)||Rudie Kortekaas, Lotte E. van Nierop, Veroni G. Baas, Karl-Heinz Konopka, Marten Harbers, Johannes H. van der Hoeven, Marten van Wijhe, Andre Aleman, Natasha M. Maurits|
|A||Electromagnetic Pulse Exposure Induces Overexpression of Beta Amyloid Protein in Rats||100 Hz||2013-(1)||Da-peng Jiang, Jing Li, Jie Zhang, Sheng-long Xu, Fang Kuang, Hai-yang Lang, Ya-feng Wang, Guang-zhou An, Jin-hui Li, Guo-zhen Guo|
|F||Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study||-||2013-(9)||Claudio Corallo, Nila Volpi, Daniela Franci, Daniela Vannoni, Roberto Leoncini, Giacomo Landi, Massimo Guarna, Antonio Montella, Antonietta Albanese,...|
|F||Therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields in the treatment of muskuloskeletal disorders||-||2012-(11)||C. Corallo, M. Rigato, E. Battisti, A. Albanese, S. Gonnelli, N. Giordano|
|F||Extra-Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields alter Cancer Cells through Metabolic Restriction||-||2012-(20)||Ying Li, Paul Héroux|
|F||The Effects of Hypoxia, Metabolic Restriction and Magnetic Fields on Chromosome Instability and Karyotype Contraction in Cancer Cell Lines||-||2012- (169)||Ying Li|
|F||Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine||-||2012-(10)||Ioannis I. Verginadis, Yannis V. Simos, Anastasia P. Velalopoulou, Athina N. Vadalouca, Vicky P. Kalfakakou, Spyridon Ch. Karkabounas, Angelos M. Evangelou|
|A||Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure on DNA transposition in relation to frequency, wave shape and exposure time||25-75 Hz||2011-(1)||Gianfranco Giorgi, Pamela Marcantonio, Ferdinando Bersani, Entelë Gavoçi, and Brunella Del re|
|F||Extremely low magnetic fields as a factor of modulation and synchronization of infradian biorhythms in animals||8 Hz - 0.005 mT||2010-(10)||V. S. Martynyuk, N. A. Temur’yants|
|F||Therapeutic efficacy of TAMMEF (Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field) system in carpal tunnel syndrome||-||2005-(5)||E. Battisti, A. Albanese, F. Ginanneschi, L. Bianciardi, M. Rigato, A. Orsi, N. Giordano|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Frequency - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|F||An electrical model with microtubules, impedance measurements and COMSOL simulations for single MDA-MB-231 cells under extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields||0.3 mT||2021-(8)||Chun-Hong Chen, Hsiang-Pin Huang, Ling-Sheng Jang, Min-Haw Wang|
|A||Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field parameters on the proliferation of human breast cancer (some Schumann resonance frequency)||7.83 Hz, 23.49 Hz, 39.15 Hz - 0.5-1 mT||2021-(1)||Min-Haw Wang, Kuan-Wei Chen, Ding-Xung Ni, Hao-Jha Fang, Ling-Sheng Jang, Chun-Hong Chen|
|A||Inhibition of B16F10 Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to the Square Wave with 7.83+/-0.3Hz Involves L- and T-Type Calcium Channels (Schumann resonance frequency)||7.83 Hz||2020-(1)||Min-Haw Wang, Ming-Wei Jian, Yuan-Hsuan Tai, Ling-Sheng Jang, Chun-Hong Chen|
|F||A high throughput screening system of coils for ELF magnetic fields experiments: proof of concept on the proliferation of cancer cell lines (some Schumann resonance frequencies)||7.8 Hz, 14.1 Hz, 21 Hz, ... - 0.02-0.17 mT||2019-(10)||Leonardo Makinistian, Eva Marková, Igor Belyaev|
|A||Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on B16F10 cancer cells (Schumann resonance frequency)||7.83 Hz||2019-(1)||Jing-Yau Tang, Te-Wei Yeh, Yu-Ting Huang, Min-Haw Wang, Ling-Sheng Jang|
|A||The Effects of Bio-inspired Electromagnetic Fields on Normal and Cancer Cells||0.5 Hz - 0.035-0.037 mT||2019-(1)||Xuelei Liu, Zongming Liu, Zhenning Liu, Shujun Zhang, Kamal Bechkoum, Michael Clark, Luquan Ren|
|A||Antitumor effects of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the 1H-NMR spectrum of Ph3Sn(Mercaptonicotinic)SnPh3 complex||-||2019-(1)||Ioannis I. Verginadis, Spyridon Ch. Karkabounas, Yannis V. Simos, Anastasia P. Velalopoulou, Dimitrios Peschos, Antonis Avdikos, Ioannis Zelovitis, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Evangelia Dounousi, Vasilios Ragos, Angelos M. Evangelou|
|A||The extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulation selective for cancer cells elicits growth arrest through a metabolic shift||-||2019-(1)||Loredana Bergandi, Umberto Lucia, Giulia Grisolia, Riccarda Granata, Iacopo Gesmundo, Antonio Ponzetto, Emilio Paolucci, Romano Borchiellini, Ezio Ghigo, Francesca Silvagno|
|F||Application of dynamic magnetic fields to B16-BL6 melanoma cells linked with decrease in cellular viability after short exposures||10-100 Hz - 0.0001-0.00025 mT||2018-(11)||Lucas W. E. Tessaro, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Robert M. Lafrenie, Michael A. Persinger|
|A||The effects of electromagnetic fields on B16-BL6 cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character||6-25 Hz||2016-(1)||Carly A. Buckner, Alison L. Buckner, Stan A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger, Robert M. Lafrenie|
|F||Elimination of Frequency Modulated Magnetic Field Suppression of Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Simultaneous Exposure to a Pattern Associated With Memory in Mammals||-||2016-(5)||Nirosha J. Murugan, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Michael A. Persinger|
|F||Seeking the Source of Transience for a Unique Magnetic Field Pattern That Completely Dissolves Cancer Cells in Vitro||0.003 - 0.005 mT||2015-(13)||Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, Stanley A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger|
|F||Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels||6-25 Hz - 0.002- 0.010 mT||2015-(15)||Carly A. Buckner, Alison L. Buckner, Stan A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger, Robert M. Lafrenie|
|F||Evidence of "Trapped" Voltage Spectrum Residuals within Mouse Melanoma Tumors for about 30 Minutes following brief Exposures to Treatment-Related, Physiologically-Patterned Magnetic Fields||1-40 Hz - 0.001 mT||2015-(5)||Kevin S. Saroka, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Muruga, Michael A. Persinger|
|F||Electromagnetic field investigation on different cancer cell lines||50 Hz - 10 mT||2014-(10)||Nenad Filipovic, Tijana Djukic, Milos Radovic, Danijela Cvetkovic, Milena Curcic, Snezana Markovic, Aleksandar Peulic, Branislav Jeremic|
|F||Low Intensity and Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability||20-50 Hz - 2-5 mT||2013-(13)||Sara Crocetti, Christian Beyer, Grit Schade, Marcel Egli, Jürg Fröhlich, Alfredo Franco-Obregón|
Comparative table of different magnetic intensities from natural sources and artificial sources (with 60 Hz AC electricity usage) at different distances (approx.)
|Element of generation||0.15 m||0.6 m||30 m||60 m||100 m|
|Geomagnetic field||0.03 mT - 0.06 mT (depending geolocation)|
|Schumann Resonance||0.000000001 mT|
|Electric Line (115 kV)||0.003 mT||0.00065 mT||0.00017 mT||0.00004 mT||0.00002 mT|
|Electric Line (230 kV)||0.0057 mT||0.00195 mT||0.00071 mT||0.00018 mT||0.00008 mT|
|Electric Line (500 kV)||0.00867 mT||0.00294 mT||0.00126 mT||0.00032 mT||0.00014 mT|
|Electric Shaver||0.01 mT||-||-||-||-|
|Vaccum Cleaner||0.03 mT||0.001 mT||-||-||-|
|Electric Oven||0.0009 mT||-||-||-||-|
|Dish Washer||0.002 mT||0.0004 mT||-||-||-|
|Microwave Oven||0.02 mT||0.001 mT||-||-||-|
|Hair Dryer||0.03 mT||-||-||-||-|
|Computers||0.0014 mT||0.0002 mT||-||-||-|
|Fluorescent Lights||0.004 mT||0.0002 mT||-||-||-|
|Copy Machines||0.009 mT||0.0007 mT||-||-||-|
The artificial sources magnetic fields are measured only for the 60 Hz frequency, other fields may be generated (for example microwaves from computers).
Table data for artificial sources adapted from: ISSN 2348-117X. Volume 3, Issue 2. April 2014. Living bodies exposed to natural and artificial extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Girish Kulkarni & W. Z. Gandhare.