Structured Water: effects on animals

" Structure refers to increases in the numbers of aggregated hydrogen and oxygen atoms that form clusters comprising two to hundreds of water molecules (Del Giudice et al., 1988; Chaplin, 2000; Pang, 2014; Chibowski and Szcześ, 2018), as exemplified in Figure 2. The clusters are capable of getting very large and may have 3-dimensional shapes that are spherical (Pang 2014), helical (Lo et al., 2012; Ho, 2014; Elia et al., 2017) and planar (Hwang et al., 2018; Elton et al., 2020) as shown in Figure 3. It is important to point out that the structures are unlike those found in ice, which has a very structured, hexameric configuration (Figure 4). The mechanisms by which water becomes structured remain poorly understood (Chaplin, 2000; Pang, 2014; Ball, 2017; Chibowski and Szcześ, 2018; Elton et al., 2020). Yet, the present review reports that water structured in different ways are capable of having many and profound effects on the biological systems that come into direct contact with these waters." {Credits 1}

{Credits 1} 🎪 Lindinger, M. I. (2021). Structured Water: effects on animals. Journal of Animal Science. © 2021 by author(s) and Open Access Library Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License.

Last modified on 23-Mar-21

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