Filaments and four ordered structures inside a neuron fire a thousand times faster than the membrane theory and experiment

" Thus far, we have succeeded in observing self-similar fractal-like operations in three-time domains, milliseconds, microseconds, and nanoseconds. Those could be achieved by pumping kilohertz, megahertz, and gigahertz signals respectively to the biomaterial and looking into its reflected and transmitted signals surface profile [25]. Recently, we showed that neural network circuits that we see under a microscope are not absolute [23]. The isolated clusters of filaments located in distant neurons could wirelessly link, build circuits neglecting the synaptic pathways. Moreover, using quantum optics with electromagnetic resonance, we showed that at least three ordered structures inside a neuron build electromagnetic vortices, regulating ionic bursts of a neuron [24]. One-to-one correspondence between neuron substructures and the vortex hologram generated by a neuron showed that transformation of electromagnetic to electric potential could happen. However, these observations are fairly abstract to conventional biology that is comfortable to see neuron communications in terms of spikes since 1907 [18] and strongly founded on the finding by Hodgkin and Huxley that filaments inside a neuron are silent. Though contested, a map of sub-structure firing must be presented for a fair evaluation in competition with the membrane spike." {Credits 1}

" Though plenty of works on the mechanical resonance of neural or cellular fibers, few reports measure electromagnetic communications through the cell. Cell fluid damps the mechanical resonance since a mechanical vibration requires tension & physical motion. In contrast, fluid alone cannot dampen most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum since it requires rearranging the dipole, i.e., a pair of charges. Combining milliseconds’ membrane response with the dipolar and functional group responses in the nanoseconds-picoseconds time domains means connecting the ionic resonance with the dipolar resonance." {Credits 1}

" Each isolated filamentary bundle or a branch could act as a distinct electromagnetic resonator, similar to a tuning fork with multiple distinct resonance frequencies. Unfortunately, the ability of these isolated, independent resonators to absorb electromagnetic signals of particular frequency domains and emit like a separate antenna has not been explored. Our current work is the first attempt to map, theoretically model intricately, and experimentally verify how each branch between two junctions acts as a unique information processing device." {Credits 1}

" To this context, our recent work on probing the hippocampal neuron using polarized monochromatic light probed structural symmetry particulars of three distinct regions is important [24]. Each structural symmetry provided a unique ring of light. However, our most important observation was imaging the energy transmission by filaments ignoring the membrane and other architectures across the neural network [23]. The electromagnetic resonance field that emitted and absorbed energy from other non-connected neurons also fed the crossbar architecture. The crossbar architecture has 200 nm wide rings of proteins covering the cylindrical shape of the protein grid. A pair of such rings brighten up in the dielectric resonance image, which controls the ion channels’ opening and closing. Therefore, three layers create a triplet of triplet symmetry of clocks [25], and it’s a time crystal that we read using optical photon condensate [24]." {Credits 1}

" Our earlier investigations did not isolate the contribution of each component; joint and superficial accounts were measured. Here, we have built a complete theoretical model of the three structures for the first time, matching theoretically predicted isolated and collective contributions using rigorous experiments. The most important finding reported here is that all prime contributors have threshold resonance frequencies that burst energy. So, we found that the dc potential burst of the membrane is the last or final event in a sequence of ac electromagnetic energy bursts. Membrane firing is not alone." {Credits 1}

" In summary, we triggered a millimeter-wave to fire a neuron even using a sub-threshold pulse where it should not fire by conventional wisdom [76] (Fig. 5a). We could even stop the inevitable firing under an above threshold pulse when mixed with a suitable millimeter-wave [84,85] (Fig. 5b). A membrane fires even without the filaments inside. The filaments only modulate the spike frequency [75]. That is why even when the neuron does not fire, a natural wave flows through the filaments (Fig. 5c). The whole neuron turns to an integrated vibrating system where distant ion channels, irrespective of their separation, are coupled to signal each other 103 times within a span of a single nerve spike via filaments."{Credits 1}

{Credits 1} 🎪 Pushpendra Singh ,Pathik Sahoo ,Subrata Ghosh ,Komal Saxena ,Jhimli Sarkar Manna ,Kanad Ray ,Soami Daya Krishnananda ,Roman R Poznanski ,Anirban Bandyopadhyay. Filaments and four ordered structures inside a neuron fire a thousand times faster than the membrane: theory and experiment. J. Integr. Neurosci. 2021, 20(4), 777–790. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Last modified on 04-Jan-21

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