" Opsins and other photoreceptors occur in all phyla and are important in light-activated signaling and organism homeostasis. In addition to the visual opsin systems of the retina (OPN1 and OPN2), there are several non-visual opsins found throughout the body tissues, including encephalopsin/panopsin (OPN3), melanopsin (OPN4), and neuropsin (OPN5), as well as other structures that have light-sensitive properties, such as enzymes, ion channels, particularly those located in cell membranes, lysosomes, and neuronal structures such as the nodes of Ranvier. The influence of these structures on exposure to light, including self-generated light within the body (autofluorescence), on circadian oscillators, and circadian and ultradian rhythms have become increasingly reported. The visual and non-visual phototransduction cascade originating from opsins and other structures has potential significant mechanistic effects on tissues and health."
Last modified on 18-Jan-22